A lot of people talk about globalization, but because globalization is abstract it turns out that there are a lot of definitions for globalization. According to Keith L. Shimko in his book ‘International Relations Perspectives and Controversies’, globalization is a multifaceted process by which the nations and societies of the world are increasingly being merged into a single global society and economy. With globalization, countries become closer and cooperate more. This cooperation is also facilitated by development in technology which also part of globalization. Because of this closeness and interdependence of countries, societies tend to merged and westernized.
There are some components that support the process of globalization; they are economic, political, environmental, social and cultural components. While talking about globalization, most people tend to view it from economic component. In reality, when people shop in the US they may not recognize that most of the products are not made in the US but in fact made in China, Vietnam, Indonesia, and other countries. A lot of organizations and agreements made to support globalization. Institutions such as OPEC, APEC, ASEAN, and NAFTA are working on international trades. In globalization process, people recognize the increase in activity of exports-imports and foreign investments that dominate the market. Today most country’s economy relies so much on imports and exports. This is why countries are interdependent, they need each other in order to stay survive. Not only from trade perspective, but globalization also seen in crisis happened. For example: Asian crisis that affect global market and Subprime Mortgage case that influence other country’s economy. This proves how globalization had merged a large world community into one society.
In political perspective, people see that there are a lot more international cooperation and laws. This supports globalization because the increase in international cooperation means that countries also being managed by these organizations. It is as if these organizations are the government. Besides, because of interdependence created, countries fear to act unilaterally. If countries alienate themselves, they will find it harder to survive.
Globalization also involve environmental component within it. Countries are merged into some organizations and joining some protocols that help protect the global environment issues, such as deforestation and global warming. States feel more responsible for these problems.
People think that globalization had created the cosmopolitan way of living for people around the world. This cosmopolitan style of living had mushroomed around the world and societies become homogenized. This is caused by the increase number of tourism and migrations between citizens in different countries.
Globalization had allowed access to improve human rights, women rights, and other detrimental issues involving some countries. Some examples are: China and its human rights issue that can be accessed by the US government and South African issue of women right that is seen by international world.
The other thing that also depicts globalization literally is technology. Technology development that came from improvement of knowledge had facilitated all components to merge into one. Information abroad can be sent to other countries in count of seconds, business can be done via internet, and issues of a country can spread easily via internet. That is why technology is inherent to globalization.
Globalization had eroded the authority of the states. It is proven in the reading power-shifts that the growth of NGO’s activity and quantity has supported them to take part in a country’s decision making and negotiations. Especially as the cost of technology lower, the access that NGO gain is bigger, so that NGO had become even officially put bigger role than the United Nations.NGO pushes government decisions, it frees societies to dictate what they want and governments are forced to consider the public opinion. It is so different because, before these globalizations occur, government strictly controls the society with the sovereignty. Today, government has less power upon society and international world. It indicates that sovereignty is eroding slowly as more roles approach and push the government.
There are lots of sectors that NGOs are sensitively aware of; economics, politics, media, security, social, environment, human rights and so on. In economic sector, globalization largely impacts the government because it is being oppressed by choosing authority or markets and capitals will leave that country. If it leaves the country, it will not only damage the society but also the government. In political sight, we can see that nationalities had disappeared. It seems that the NGOs had replaced the government role because they are better and faster in tackling problems.
According to Power Shift article, globalization had shift the place of government and replacing country’s sovereignty with people’s interests. With the eroding sovereignty, in the long run democratic government will be threatened. One example of eroded sovereignty is European Union that adopted post-sovereign system. They had been warned that they lost most of their authority except from defense policy. Who knows that with the breeding of stronger globalization they will eliminate the sovereignty totally?